Príčastia -ing & -ed

Názov

Ak používame príponu –ing so slovesom, túto formu nazývame “present participle” – prítomné príčastie. Prípona –ed (so slovesom) nám bude tvoriť “past participle” – minulé (trpné) príčastie. Je to v podstate tretí tvar všetkých slovies (pravidelných a nepravidelných).

To však neznamená, že present participle budeme používať iba v prítomnom čase a past participle iba v minulom. Obe formy môžeme použiť ak rozprávame o prítomnosti, minulosti, ale aj budúcnosti.

  • She was crying when I saw her.
  • Who’s the man talking to Elizabeth?
  • This time tomorrow I’ll be lying on the beach.
  • It was broken in the storm.
  • The kids are excited.
  • The new school is going to be opened next week.

 

Použitie

Príčastia používame s pomocnými slovesami be have na vytvorenie progressive, perfect passive formy. Progressive – priebehová forma, perfect – predprítomný, predminulý a predbudúci čas, passive – trpný rod.

  • It was raining when I got home. (progressive form)
  • I’ve forgotten your name. (perfect form)
  • You’ll be told as soon as possible. (passive form)

Aj spojením prítomného príčastia slovesa be alebo have a minulého príčastia iného slovesa, vieme vytvoriť progressive perfect formy.

  • being employed
  • having arrived
  • having been invited

 

Príčastia môžu byť použité ako prídavné mená.

  • I love the noise of falling rain.
  • She says she’s got a broken heart.
  • John has become very boring.
  • The house looked abandoned. 

 

Niekedy ich môžeme použiť ako príslovky.

  • She ran screaming out of the room.

 

Príčastia tiež používame pri tvorbe jednoduchých viet v súvetiach a v takom prípade je podmet zamlčaný.

  • Who’s the fat man sitting in the corner?
  • Having lost all my money, I went home.
  • Most of the people invited to the party didn’t turn up.
  • Rejected by all his friends, he decided to become a monk.

 

 -ed vs –ing

Príčastia/ prídavné mená tvorené s koncovkou –ed vyjadrujú pocity.

Príčastia/ prídavné mená tvorené s koncovkou –ing opisujú ľudí alebo veci, ktoré zapríčiňujú pocity, teda hovoríme o črtách/ vlastnostiach.

Porovnajte:

  • I was very interested in the lesson.

The lesson was really interesting.

  • I didn’t enjoy the party because I was bored.

It was a terribly boring party.

  • The children always get excited when granny comes.

Granny takes the children to exciting places.

  • His explanations make me very confused.

He’s a very confusing writer.

209

"-ed" or "-ing"

1 / 12

This rainy weather is so ...........

2 / 12

My neighbors are very .......... because they make too much noise.

3 / 12

My new job is very ...........

4 / 12

They will be very .......... if I do well in my test.

5 / 12

John was .......... when he saw the view.

6 / 12

I'm .......... with my current job. I think, I'll find a new one.

7 / 12

The training session was very ..........

8 / 12

I'm .......... now. Does the bus leave at 5am or 5pm?

9 / 12

Did you hear the .......... news about the accident?

10 / 12

I'm never late for my class because it's .......... when everyone looks at me.

11 / 12

I'm not very .......... in sport.

12 / 12

I'm really afraid of large spiders. I think they are ...........

Your score is

The average score is 92%

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